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Dinosaur-Killing Asteroid Caused Mile High Tsunami



The tsunami caused by a dinosaur-killing asteroid had mile-high waves that reached halfway around the world.

The asteroid that struck Earth approximately 66 million years ago caused a tsunami with mile-high waves.

According to a new study, the dinosaur-killing asteroid that slammed into Earth 66 million years ago also caused a jumbo-size tsunami with mile-high waves in the Gulf of Mexico, the waters of which traveled halfway around the world.

After analyzing cores from over 100 sites around the world and creating digital models of the monstrous waves after the asteroid’s impact in Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula, researchers discovered evidence of this massive tsunami.

“This tsunami was strong enough to disturb and erode sediments in ocean basins halfway around the world,” said study lead author Molly Range, who conducted the modeling study for a master’s thesis at the University of Michigan’s Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences.

The research on the mile-high tsunami was previously presented at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in 2019.

Range dove into the tsunami’s path immediately after the asteroid collided. Based on previous research, her team created a model of an asteroid that was 8.7 miles (14 kilometers) across and traveling at 27,000 mph (43,500 km/h), or 35 times the speed of sound, when it collided with Earth. Many lifeforms died as a result of the asteroid; nonavian dinosaurs became extinct (only birds, which are living dinosaurs, survive today), and roughly three-quarters of all plant and animal species were wiped out.

Four hours after the end-Cretaceous asteroid impact, the modeled tsunami sea-surface height perturbation (in meters).

Many of the asteroid’s negative effects are well known, such as igniting raging fires that cooked animals alive and pulverizing sulfur-rich rocks, which caused lethal acid rain and prolonged global cooling. Range and her colleagues studied the Earth’s geology to learn more about the resulting tsunami, successfully analyzing 120 “boundary sections,” or marine sediments laid down just before or after the mass extinction event that marked the end of the Cretaceous period.

According to Range, the boundary sections matched the predictions of their wave height and travel model.

The initial energy released by the impact tsunami was up to 30,000 times greater than the energy released by the December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake tsunami, which killed over 230,000 people, according to the researchers.

When the asteroid collided with Earth, it left a 62-mile-wide (100-kilometer) crater and ejected a dense cloud of dust and soot into the atmosphere. According to the simulation, a curtain of ejected material pushed a wall of water outward just 2.5 minutes after the strike, briefly creating a 2.8-mile-tall (4.5-kilometer) wave that crashed down as the ejecta plummeted back to Earth.

At the 10-minute mark, a 0.93-mile-high (1.5-kilometer) tsunami wave swept through the gulf in all directions, about 137 miles (220 kilometers) away from the impact site. The tsunami had left the Gulf of Mexico and was rushing into the North Atlantic an hour after the impact. The tsunami passed through the Central American Seaway, which separated North and South America at the time, and into the Pacific four hours after the impact.

The waves had traveled through most of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans a full day after the asteroid collision, entering the Indian Ocean from both sides, and touching most of the world’s coastlines 48 hours after the strike.

The tsunami sea-surface height perturbation (in meters) predicted 24 hours after the dinosaur-killing asteroid collided with Earth.

The tsunami radiated primarily to the east and northeast, gushing into the North Atlantic Ocean, as well as to the southwest via the Central American Seaway, flowing into the South Pacific Ocean. Water moved so quickly in these areas that it most likely exceeded 0.4 mph (0.6 km/h), a velocity that can erode the fine-grained sediments on the seafloor.

According to the team’s models, other regions largely escaped the tsunami’s power, including the South Atlantic, North Pacific, Indian Ocean, and what is now the Mediterranean Sea. The water speeds in these areas were less than the 0.4 mph threshold, according to their simulations.

The maximum tsunami wave amplitude (in centimeters) caused by an asteroid impact 66 million years ago.

The team even discovered outcrops — or exposed rocky deposits — from the impact event on the north and south islands of eastern New Zealand, more than 7,500 miles (12,000 km) from the Chicxulub crater in Mexico. Initially, scientists assumed that these outcrops were caused by local tectonic activity. However, due to their age and location in the tsunami’s modeled path, the researchers attributed it to the asteroid’s massive waves.

“We believe these deposits are recording the effects of the impact tsunami,” Range said. “This is perhaps the most telling confirmation of the global significance of this event.”

While the models did not account for coastal flooding, they did show that open-ocean waves in the Gulf of Mexico would have exceeded 328 feet (100 meters), and waves would have reached heights of more than 32.8 feet (10 meters) as the tsunami approached the North Atlantic’s coastal regions and parts of South America’s Pacific coast, according to the statement.

Wave heights would have risen dramatically as the water became shallower near the coast.

According to the study’s authors, “depending on the geometries of the coast and the advancing waves, most coastal regions would be inundated and eroded to some extent.” “Any tsunamis documented in the past pale in comparison to such global impact.”


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‘Queen’ Founding Member Shares Crop Circle Picture



On May 24th, Brian May, a founding member of the rock band Queen who later earned a Ph.D. in astrophysics, posted several images to Instagram of a crop circle seen near Marlborough, England.

“Have you noticed anything out of the ordinary here in the English countryside?” The photos were captioned by May. “I’d never seen a crop circle before. As a result, I’m always skeptical of them. But yesterday, as we flew back from our production rehearsal space, over a location near Marlborough, there was this. […] Who creates these fascinating works of mathematical art? Is it a hoax? Are they created by extraterrestrials? And… how…? And what is their goal?”
Responses to May’s post have been mixed, with some claiming that the phenomenon is paranormal, while others believe that hoaxers are to blame.

Crop circles have sparked speculation in the modern era since at least the mid-1970s, with theories ranging from hoaxers to otherworldly beings to “earth energies.”

Despite the fact that people have claimed responsibility for certain crop circle formations, mysterious circles of flattened plants discovered in fields date back much further than modern-day hoaxers.

W.Y. Evans-Wentz recorded folktales of faeries coming in the night to thresh farmers’ grain in his 1911 book The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries. Similarly, in 1678, an English woodcut pamphlet depicts ‘The Mowing-Devil,’ who is shown mowing crops in a circular pattern.

While some dismiss these as folkloric inspiration for modern-day hoaxers, others see them as proof of a phenomenon that predates man-made imitation.

No one has yet claimed responsibility for the crop circle photographed by May.


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DoD Announces Expanded Effort to Investigate UFOs



According to a press release issued by the Department of Defense (DoD):

Due to the passage of the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal 2022, Deputy Secretary of Defense Kathleen Hicks, in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), amended her original directive to the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence & Security on July 15, 2022, by renaming and expanding the scope of the Airborne Object Identification and Management Group (AOIMSG) to the All-domain Anomaly Resolution Office (AARO).

USD(I&S) Hon. Ronald S. Moultrie informed the department today of the establishment of AARO within the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence and Security, and named Dr. Sean M. Kirkpatrick, most recently the chief scientist at the Defense Intelligence Agency’s Missile and Space Intelligence Center, as its director.

The AARO’s mission will be to coordinate efforts across the Department of Defense and other federal departments and agencies in the United States to detect, identify, and attribute objects of interest in, on, or near military installations, operating areas, training areas, special use airspace, and other areas of interest, and, as needed, to mitigate any associated threats to operational safety and national security. Anomaly, unidentified space, airborne, submerged, and transmedium objects are included.

Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence and Security (USD(I&S)) Ronald Moultrie will lead the AARO Executive Council (AAROEXEC), which will provide oversight and direction to the AARO along the following primary lines of effort:

1. Surveillance, Collection and Reporting
2. System Capabilities and Design
3. Intelligence Operations and Analysis
4. Mitigation and Defeat
5. Governance
6. Science and Technology

This newly reported expansion of the Pentagon’s UFO investigation program follows low congressional trust in their investigative efforts.

Following the release of the much-anticipated preliminary assessment report on UFOs by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence last year, many in the intelligence community were critical of what they saw as the report’s failure to offer any concrete explanations for most of the incidents examined, particularly in light of concerns about secret Russian or Chinese technology.

The Pentagon then promised to revamp the task force in charge of investigating UFOs, which resulted in the formation of the AOIMSG, which has since been renamed the AARO.

This reflects Congress’ growing interest in UFOs, which was most recently demonstrated during a House Intelligence Subcommittee hearing on the subject last May—the first of its kind in more than 50 years.

The congressional hearing allowed lawmakers to question the Pentagon about unidentified aerial phenomena (UAP)—the current government term for UFOs—and for government officials to explain their current position and outline plans to investigate the issue further.

During the hearing, there were few mentions of extraterrestrials, though the Pentagon did express a particular interest in reports containing unusual flight characteristics such as incredible speed, transmedium capabilities, and undetectable means of propulsion.

Since the existence of the Pentagon’s Advanced Aviation Threat Identification Program (AATIP), which reportedly ran from 2007 to 2012, was made public in 2017, congressional interest in UFOs has skyrocketed.

Interest in the encounters between Navy pilots and UFOs grew, and in 2019, several senators, including Sen. Mark Warner (D-Va.), then vice chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, were briefed on them.

The Senate Intelligence Committee, led at the time by Senator Marco Rubio (R-Fla.), then included a directive in their Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021 ordering the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) to create a report on “unidentified aerial phenomena” in consultation with the Secretary of Defense.

That bill resulted in the formation of the Unidentified Aerial Phenomena Task Force (UAPTF), which was in charge of producing the aforementioned preliminary assessment report.


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The Marlborough Monkey is a Cryptid Fans Classic



The latest documentary by researcher and filmmaker Karac St. Laurent, The Legend of the Marlborough Monkey, takes a fresh look at an older and often overlooked series of cryptid sightings in New Hampshire.

Most people don’t think of Bigfoot sightings in the northeastern United States, but St. Laurent has made a compelling case for taking the subject seriously while still having fun along the way.

The film is a tribute to the classic cryptid documentaries of the 1970s, and it was shot to look like an 8mm film being watched on a VHS tape. With thematic music and Robert Ready’s absolutely perfect deadpan narration, viewers could be forgiven for not immediately recognizing this as a documentary shot in 2021.

Despite its aesthetic, the film is very much a product of modern investigation, and St. Laurent conducts field investigations using equipment anachronistic to the 1970s, both solo and in collaboration with Small Town Monsters alum Aleksandar Petakov.

When some filmmakers might have been content to show only the interviews with researchers and witnesses included in the documentary, the field investigations were a nice touch. Folklorist John Horrigan is an especially bright addition to an already entertaining documentary, and his unique blend of wit and historical storytelling could have carried the film on its own.

Horrigan, interestingly, coined the term “The Marlborough Monkey” to describe the hairy humanoid being reported by New Hampshire residents in the 1990s, based on one account in which the witness said the creature looked like an orangutan. Those reports never stopped, and sightings of ‘The Marlborough Monkey’ are still being reported today.

St. Laurent, however, does not stop with stories; similarly to his first documentary, Release the Bodette Film, a variety of evidence is presented for the viewers to peruse. Much like that film, the viewer is ultimately left to decide what to believe, despite the fact that the vast majority of the film approaches the subject from a staunchly materialistic standpoint. Petakov makes a passing reference to high strangeness during an interview late in the film, but otherwise the assumption is that if something strange is going on, it’s most likely an undiscovered primate. This isn’t necessarily a negative, depending on your point of view, and those who prefer materialist science in the hunt for cryptids will appreciate the film’s mainstream take on the phenomenon.

That viewpoint is consistent with the 1970s-era documentaries to which it pays homage, and given the evidence presented, there’s never any sense that the investigation should be taking a different path. If The Legend of Boggy Creek is one of your favorite documentaries, check out The Legend of the Marlborough Monkey.

The Legend of the Marlborough Monkey has a run time of 43:14 and will be available to watch for free on the Crash-Course Cryptozoology YouTube channel starting at noon on September 12th. Expect it to be available on DVD around Thanksgiving.


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